Relationship Between Academic Procrastination and Differential Learning Outcomes in Asynchronous Online EFL Learning




academic procrastination, asynchronous online learning, differential outcomes


Although one advantage of asynchronous online language learning is that learners can choose when and where to learn, this learning environment can also lend itself to procrastination. However, procrastination during asynchronous language learning has not been sufficiently studied. Therefore, the present study investigates student procrastination in an asynchronous English learning environment and examines its impact on learning outcomes. University students engaged in asynchronous learning were divided into three groups, reflecting the timing of access to online materials: procrastinators, habitual learners, and uncategorized learners. When the pre- and post-test scores of the three groups were compared, the procrastinators showed significantly less score growth than the habitual learners. However, these results leave room for further research on the learning outcomes of uncategorized learners, who lacked good study habits but did not procrastinate. The results suggest that, even in asynchronous language learning environments characterized by anytime/anywhere learning, interventions are needed to help students avoid procrastination and become habitual learners.

Author Biographies

Shuichi Amano, Institute for Foreign Language Research and Education, Hiroshima University, Japan

Shuichi Amano is an associate professor at Hiroshima University. He is an applied linguist with interests in L2 phonetic and phonological acquisition, computer-assisted language learning, and theory-practice interfacing. He has nearly 20 years of experience teaching English in Japan.

Kazumichi Enokida, Institute for Foreign Language Research and Education, Hiroshima University, Japan

Kazumichi Enokida served at Hiroshima University for about 15 years. He was a scholar of English literature and extremely passionate about teaching English. He contributed greatly to this research project with his gentle personality and extraordinary dedication.

Tatsuya Sakaue, Faculty of Humanities and Human Sciences, Hiroshima Shudo University, Japan

Tatsuya Sakaue is currently an associate professor at the Faculty of Humanities and Human Sciences at Hiroshima ShudoUniversity. He is interested in foreign/second language acquisition and corpus linguistics.

Atsushi Nakagawa, Institute for Foreign Language Research and Education, Hiroshima University, Japan

Atsushi Nakagawa is currently an assistant professor at the Institute for Foreign Language Research and Education (FLaRE), Hiroshima University, Japan. He is interested in foreign/second language acquisition and teacher education.

Katsuhiro Yamauchi, Institute for Foreign Language Research and Education, Hiroshima University, Japan

Katsuhiro Yamauchi teaches English as an assistant professor at the Institute for Foreign Language Research and Education at Hiroshima University. His research interests include extensive reading, vocabulary learning, and slow learners.


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How to Cite

Amano, S., Enokida, K., Sakaue, T., Nakagawa, A., & Yamauchi, K. (2023). Relationship Between Academic Procrastination and Differential Learning Outcomes in Asynchronous Online EFL Learning. AsiaCALL Online Journal, 14(2), 1–17.