A Phenomenological Inquiry of Code-Switching Among College Students





Code-switching, oral participation, phenomenological inquiry


Code-switching is the use of two languages in discourse to convey the intended message. The study investigated the phenomenon of code-switching during oral participation, specifically the experiences and contexts of the purposively selected students of ABC College in Cagayan de Oro City. The Phenomenology Design was employed in this study to explore the participants' actual experiences to identify the essence of human experiences. This study included six students from different programs of ABC College who experienced code-switching. The analysis was done using Creswell's (2007) simplified version of Moustakas's modification of the Stevick-Colaizzi-Keen Method of Analysis of Phenomenological Data. The finding of the study showed that the participants switched between codes during oral participation to support their communication skills and to feel more comfortable and confident in participating. The findings demonstrated that the phenomenon of code-switching as used by the students tended to come out when they were asked, wanted to express themselves more, encountered difficulty using the English language, were afraid to commit grammar errors, had difficulty recalling, lacked vocabulary, and when teachers allowed them to switch codes. This implies that the participants' experiences and contexts of code-switching during oral participation are reasons for code-switching. Thus, this study recommended facilitating the use of code-switching during oral participation in moderation for students to practice proficiency in their second language, English.

Author Biographies

Kurt Candilas, Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Dr. Kurt S. Candilas is the Dean of the Arts and Sciences Program of Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. He earned his undergraduate degree in Arts in English at Bukidnon State University, Malaybalay City. He obtained his Master’s degree in Education majoring in Teaching English Communication Arts at Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City. He finished his Doctorate degree in English majoring in Literature at the University of San Jose Recoletos, Cebu City, Philippines. Dr. Candilas also earned his TESOL advanced certification with the American TESOL Institute of the Philippines, Inc.

Ivory Villanueva, Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Ivory Villanueva is a third-year student taking up a Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English at Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. She is interested in studying a second language, English.

Elvie Mae Taglinao, Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Elvie Mae B Taglinao is a third-year student taking up Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English at Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. She is interested in reading books.

Kristina Villarta, Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines

Kristina Marie A. Villarta is a third-year student taking up a Bachelor of Secondary Education Major in English at Lourdes College, Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines. She is interested in listening to music.


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How to Cite

Candilas, K., Villanueva, I., Taglinao, E. M., & Villarta, K. (2023). A Phenomenological Inquiry of Code-Switching Among College Students. AsiaCALL Online Journal, 14(1), 120–138. https://doi.org/10.54855/acoj.231418



Research Article